By Kuczma M.E. (ed.)

**Read Online or Download 144 problems of the Austrian-Polish Mathematics Competition, 1978-1993 PDF**

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**Additional resources for 144 problems of the Austrian-Polish Mathematics Competition, 1978-1993**

**Example text**

S. 29 technology in China, it has been an urgent agenda to upgrade and foster teachers’ quality. In order to meet this challenge, the Ministry of Education (1998) documented an action plan for revitalizing education in the 21st century. Two projects were launched; one is referred to as the “Gardener Project” and aims to establish continuing teacher education systems for practicing teachers. Meanwhile, the Ministry of Education (1999) enacted a decision on deepening education reform and whole advancing quality education in which comprehensive universities and non-normal Universities were encouraged to engage in educating elementary and secondary teachers.

3 Chapter Three: Methodology This study compared the characteristics of mathematics knowledge needed for teaching algebra between China and the United States. An embedded mixed methods design was adapted (Creswell & Clark, 2007). The design of the main data set consists of written answers to a questionnaire which includes multiple choice items and open-ended items, while the supportive data set is comprised of the written answers to the open-ended items and follow up interviews. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the status and structure of teacher knowledge of algebra for teaching through quantitatively analyzing the participants’ performance in the KAT survey between the two countries.

In the Focus of High School Mathematics (NCTM, 2009), sense making and reasoning is the core value of learning mathematics in general, and algebra in particular. It was suggested that key elements of reasoning and sense making with algebraic symbols should include the following: 1. Meaningful use of symbols. Choosing variables and constructing expressions and equations in context; interpreting the form of expressions and equations; manipulating expression so that interesting interpretations can be made.