By W. Woodruff
By way of investigating the key alterations of worldwide background prior to now years, this publication presents the required international viewpoint to appreciate the geopolitical and geoeconomic alterations dealing with us at the present time. now we have reached a very important transitional degree in global heritage within which the realm will not be formed through the only photo of western modernism, yet more and more by means of identical to all cultures and civilizations. the necessity to take an international view--which this e-book provides--has develop into acute.
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Additional resources for A Concise History of the Modern World: 1500 to the Present: A Guide to World Affairs, Fourth Edition
Shinto was a national religion long before it was proclaimed as such in 1871. Equally important was bushido, the Japanese warrior code of moral principles, which stressed filial piety, benevolence, loyalty to one’s lord unto death, personal courage, conscious choice of where one’s duty lay, self-discipline, endurance, kindness and honesty. Its martial spirit emphasized duties not rights. Family relations came after those of lord and vassal. Bushido placed the warrior ruler first, followed by the peasant, the artisan and then the merchant.
From the eighth to the eleventh centuries Europe had been threatened by the pagan Vikings, whose dragon-prowed ships had penetrated its waterways, and whose plundering and murdering had spread terror throughout Christendom. In the thirteenth century Europe had been battered by the Mongols, who swept from the heartland of Asia through eastern Europe to the shores of the Adriatic. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Christian Europe had turned back the Turks at the gates of Vienna. Only with the crumbling of the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century did the Turks cease to threaten Europe and its unifying faith.
Among them, moral and religious scruples were lost sight of in the effort to survive. France on two occasions actually allied itself with the Turkish infidel. In addition to religious scruples, monarchical rivalry was also responsible for the European wars of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, including the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14), the Great Northern War (1700–21), the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–8), and the Seven Years War (1756–63). The first European monarch to demonstrate his nation’s might on a world scene was Portugal’s Manoel I (reigned 1495–1521), ‘Lord of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of India, Ethiopia, Arabia and Persia’.