A Prehistory of the North: Human Settlement of the Higher by John F. Hoffecker

By John F. Hoffecker

For the 1st time in recent times, now we have a synthesis of the most recent pondering and discoveries through a more youthful student with an authoritative clutch of the topic. This booklet is a vital contribution to the final literature of human prehistory, exact for its accomplished insurance of the circumpolar regions.—Brian Fagan, writer of The lengthy summer season: How weather replaced Civilization

"A uniquely authoritative, hugely readable, and well-illustrated account of ways stone-age humans controlled to colonize the a long way North."—Richard G. Klein, Stanford University

Early people didn't easily waft northward from their African origins as their talents to deal with cooler climates advanced. The preliminary cost of locations like Europe and northern Asia, in addition to the later move into the Arctic and the Americas, really happened in quite speedy bursts of enlargement. A Prehistory of the North is the 1st full-length learn to inform the advanced tale, spanning nearly million years, of the way people inhabited a few of the coldest areas on earth.

In an account wealthy with illustrations, John Hoffecker lines the historical past of anatomical variations, nutrition adjustments, and technological advancements, similar to garments and take care of, which allowed people the continuing skill to push the limits in their habitation. The e-book concludes by way of exhibiting how within the previous couple of thousand years, peoples dwelling within the circumpolar zone—with the exception of western and vital Siberia—developed a thriving maritime economy.

Written in nontechnical language, A Prehistory of the North presents compelling new insights and helpful info for pros and scholars.

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Major australopithecine sites in East and southern Africa. Inset: skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis (“Lucy”). overall body size). They retained many other apelike features, and their geographic range was almost as limited as that of the modern chimpanzee. However, the australopithecines had evolved a mode of locomotion—walking upright on their hindlimbs—that set them apart from not only the African apes but all other living primates and most mammals. It was the development of bipedalism that moved humans onto their fateful evolutionary track.

33 The appearance of the large-brained early Homo coincides with evidence for important behavioral changes that have implications for human ecology. 3 million years ago). Moreover, they are often found in association with animal bones that exhibit traces of tool damage. 6 million years ago). Oldowan tools are simple and confined to flaked cobbles and pebbles— often labeled “core tools”— or modified stone flakes. Few if any of them seem to reflect a design based on a mental template, and most of the tool types identified by archaeologists may be imposed on a continuum of variation by the modern human brain.

To begin with, the larger body and brain size placed greater energy demands on Homo erectus. As plant food availability declined in drier and cooler habitats, the proportion of meat in the diet must have risen. Long-range foraging and lower temperatures would have further intensified energy needs. 64 A high meat diet was essential for the subsequent colonization of the North, and—as scavenging opportunities declined at these latitudes as a function of lower animal biomass—hunting became necessary to sustain it.

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