Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.)

By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.)

Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic notion, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a very important position in lots of disciplines, particularly desktop Programming, common and synthetic imaginative and prescient, complicated structures, synthetic Intelligence and laptop studying, artwork, and Cognitive Sciences. This e-book first presents the reader with an outline of the notions of abstraction proposed in numerous disciplines by means of evaluating either commonalities and modifications. After discussing the characterizing homes of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to seize them. This version makes the suggestion of abstraction simply acceptable via the creation of a collection of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout varied domain names and purposes. it's the effect of abstraction in man made Intelligence, advanced structures and laptop studying which creates the middle of the ebook. A basic framework, according to the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based prognosis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.

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For instance, if an animal is defined as a being that eats, moves, and reproduces, a bird can inherit all the above properties, with the addition of has-wings. The is-a relation between a type and a sub-type is called by Goldstein and Storey an inclusion abstraction [217]. These authors define other types of abstraction as well, which will be described in Sect. 2. Colburn and Shute [111] make a point is differentiating Computer Science from empirical sciences, because the latter ones have concrete models in the form of experimental apparata as well as abstract mathematical models, whereas the former has only software models, which are not physically concrete.

In this context, abstraction is intended as a synthesis of common properties associated to a category, as opposed to the memorization of a set of concrete exemplars of the category itself. The two representations are compared in terms of information storage, revision, and loss, and in terms of types of processing that they support. The interesting conclusion of the study is that the two representations are not distinguishable on the basis of empirical findings [34]. The view of abstraction offered by Barsalou consists in an embodied theory [35], which is based on simulation [36].

4 Computer Science According to Guttag [227], “the central problem in designing and implementing large software projects is therefore to reduce the complexity. ” There is in fact a widely shared agreement that abstraction is a fundamental process in Computer Science, at the point that Kramer wonders whether it is indeed the core of the discipline, and a mandatory cognitive prerequisite for computer scientists and students to develop good software [301]. In his paper Kramer explores two aspects of abstraction: the ability to remove details for simplification, and the formulation of general concepts by abstracting common properties from specific examples.

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