By Loren T. Stuckenbruck
The general public worship of the risen Christ as depicted in John's Apocalypse without delay contradicts the guiding angel's emphasis that in simple terms God will be worshiped (Revelation 19:10; 22:8-9). In Angel Veneration and Christology, Loren Stuckenbruck explores this contradiction in gentle of angel veneration in Early Judaism.
Stuckenbruck surveys a large choice of Jewish traditions on the topic of angelic worship and discovers proscriptions opposed to sacrificing to angels; prohibitions opposed to making pictures of angels; rejections of the "two powers"; second-century Christian apologetic accusations in particular directed opposed to Jews; and, most significantly, the refusal culture, frequent in Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings, in which angelic messengers refuse the veneration of the seer and exhort the worship of God alone.
While proof for the perform of angel veneration among Jews of antiquity (Qumran, pseudepigraphal literature, and inscriptions from Asia Minor) doesn't provide the rapid history for the worship of Christ, Stuckenbruck demonstrates that the actual fact that safeguards to a monotheistic framework have been issued in any respect throws gentle at the Christian perform of worshiping Jesus. the way in which the Apocalypse adapts the refusal culture illuminates Revelation's declarations approximately and depictions of Jesus. even though the refusal culture itself purely safeguards the worship of God, Stuckenbruck strains how the culture has been break up in order that the angelophanic components have been absorbed into the christophany. As Stuckenbruck indicates, an angelomorphic Christology, shared through the writer of Revelation and its readers, features to maintain the author's monotheistic emphasis in addition to to stress Christ's superiority over the angels―setting the degree for the worship of the Lamb in a monotheistic framework that doesn't contradict the angelic directive to worship God by myself.
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Extra resources for Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John
Z. SMITH, "Wisdom and Apocalyptic," in ed. D. HANSON, Visionaries and Their Apocalypses (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983, repr. from 1975) 101-120 (both are scribal phenomena); Michael E. STONE, "Lists of Re vealed Things in the Apocalyptic Literature," in eds. M. E. D. MILLER, Magnalia Dei. The Mighty Acts of Cod. Essays in the Bible and Archaeology in Memory of G. Ernest Wright (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976) 414-52, esp. pp. 439-43; Michael A. KNIBB, "Prophecy and the Emergence of the Jewish Apocalypses," in eds.
86 85 during the latter Here Christ (especially as the Lamb) is portrayed in radical contrast to the self-aggrandizing assertions of this emperor (as the second beast in ch. , see the classical treatments by E. B. Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1919) and Ethelbert STAUFFER, Christ and the Caesars, trans. K. and R. Gregor SMITH (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1955) 147-91; and, more recently, John GAGER, Kingdom and Commu nity (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975) 49-57, esp. pp. 51-53; CAR NEGIE, "Worthy is the Lamb," 254-6; SCHUSSLER FIORENZA, "The Followers of the Lamb: Visionary Rhetoric and Social-Political Situation," in The Book of Rev elation, pp.
156-161 concerning the Qumran Shirot 'Olat ha-Shabbat. "Monotheism" III. "MONOTHEISM": 15 DEFINING A THEOLOGICAL C O N S T R U C T Biblical scholars have conceived of "monotheism" within b o t h broad and narrow limits. In the former case, i t suffices to have "monotheism" refer to the belief in or worship of one, sense, however, the expression universal god. 38 In the is applied in a way that latter, narrower specifically pre- 39 eludes a belief in the existence of other deities. In either case, one's un derstanding of "monotheism" depends to some degree on how i t is contrasted 40 with "polytheism," concerning which there is more unanimity in definition: the belief in or worship of two or more gods in which, of course, the venera tion of one deity does not exclude the worship of another.