By Richard C. Lewontin
Following within the type of Stephen Jay Gould and Peter Medawar, one of many world's major scientists examines how "pure technological know-how" is in truth formed and guided via social and political wishes and assumptions.
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Additional resources for Biology As Ideology
First, what do I. Q. tests actually measure? They are a combination of numerical, vocabulary, educational, and attitudinal questions. ) And how do we know that someone who does well on such a test is intelligent? Because, in fact, the tests were originally standardized to pick out precisely those children in a class whom the teacher had already labeled intelligent. That is, I. Q. tests are instruments for giving an apparently objective and "scientific" gloss to the social prejudices of educational institutions.
It is necessary to search among many such homogeneous inbred lines to find pairs that will do the trick. The hybrid cross between the inbred lines has another quality, which is not much spoken about, a quality with a unique commercial value. If a farmer has a high-yielding variety of some crop, one that is resistant to disease and produces high commercial output as compared to the cost of inputs, his normal way of carrying on his business would be to save some of the seed of this high-yielding variety and plant it next year to again achieve high yields.
Q. s even though there is evidence for some genetic influence from their biological parents. These results of adoption studies illustrate perfectly why we cannot answer a question about how much something can be changed by answering a different question, namely, are there genes influencing the trait? If we wanted seriously to ask the question posed by Arthur Jensen in his famous article "How much can we boost I. Q. ",11 the only way we could answer would be to try to boost I. Q. and scholastic achievement.