Capital Dames: The Civil War and the Women of Washington, by Cokie Roberts

By Cokie Roberts

During this engrossing and informative better half to her New York Times bestsellers Founding Mothers and Ladies of Liberty, Cokie Roberts marks the sesquicentennial of the Civil struggle through supplying a riveting examine Washington, D.C. and the stories, effect, and contributions of its girls in this momentous interval of yankee history.

With the outbreak of the Civil warfare, the small, social Southern city of Washington, D.C. came upon itself stuck among warring aspects in a four-year conflict that might verify the way forward for the United States.

After the assertion of secession, many desirable Southern ladies left town, leaving their friends—such as Adele Cutts Douglas and Elizabeth Blair Lee—to grapple with safety issues and sanitation because the capital was once remodeled into a major Union military camp and later a medical institution. With their husbands, brothers, and fathers marching off to battle, both at the battlefield or within the halls of Congress, the ladies of Washington joined the reason besides. And extra ladies went to the Capital urban to enlist as nurses, offer organizers, aid staff, and reporters. Many risked their lives making munitions in a hugely flammable arsenal, toiled on the Treasury division printing dollars to finance the battle, and plied their needlework abilities on the army Yard—once the only real province of men—to stitch canvas gunpowder baggage for the troops.

Cokie Roberts chronicles those women's expanding independence, their political empowerment, their necessary position in holding the Union unified during the warfare, and in supporting heal it as soon as the battling was once performed. She concludes that the struggle not just replaced Washington, it additionally perpetually replaced where of women.

Sifting via newspaper articles, govt documents, and personal letters and diaries—many by no means prior to published—Roberts brings the war-torn capital into concentration during the lives of its ambitious ladies.

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Th. Kuipers-Rietberg, who initiated the largest national underground organization to hide people from the Germans. 4) Feminism in Holland, as elsewhere, had practically died after about 1920. There had been a revival, however, which is relevant to the role of women during the war. In reaction to government proposals during the Depression to forbid all paid labour for married women, a broad-based committee was set up in 1935, uniting old and new feminists from different social and political backgrounds.

Several women who gave 'heroic' accounts referred to making very different marriages from those which had been expected of them. For example Katharine Hughes got married in 1943: 'I mean I was engaged to someone else when I was called up. I never married him. I married someone else. We met and married within about six weeks' (Hughes, 356). She described a truly whirlwind romance. A similar sense of the fun of Forces courtships came through other accounts. The excitement was enhanced by the need to break disciplinary rules in order to pursue the romance, which was special in part because it was an independent liaison with someone from outside the family circle.

The preparation for the persecution of the Jewish population was not yet very visible and the population as a whole was left in relative peace. World-wide, Germany was militarily successful and the expectation of long-lasting German domination led the majority of the Dutch population to seek ways to adjust to the situation. ) In this period there was hardly any organized Resistance. In the second period, when Nazi policy hardened and anti-Jewish measures were introduced, the Resistance began to grow.

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