Carbohydrate Nanotechnology by Keith J. Stine

By Keith J. Stine

Introducing the rising box carbohydrate nanostructures, this ebook could be a distinct source for researchers to profit quite a number equipment of using the sphere to their very own paintings. better entry, in addition to higher collaboration, to this new interdisciplinary box is meant for either man made carbohydrate chemists and researchers in nanoscience comparable fields. It covers:

  • the major different types of nanostructures almost immediately below research for amendment through carbohydrates, together with nanoparticles, nanorods, magnetic debris, dendrimers, nanoporous, and floor restrained structures
  • overview and advent to the sphere of carbohydrate nanotechnology, and particularly its purposes to its organic systems
  • Provides a different source for researchers to benefit concerning the options used to signify the actual and organic houses of carbohydrate-modified nanostructures

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Example text

The main advantage of preparing glycopolymers on surfaces is that the orientations in which they are presented probably better resemble the complex natural presentation of carbohydrates when compared to SAMs. However, one current challenge is to limit the polydispersity in order to obtain well‐defined glycosurfaces. The chemoselective reactions discussed in this section are the most frequently used approach to immobilize carbohydrates on surfaces in a well‐defined and con­ trolled manner. In general, the main benefit of this approach is the possibility of obtaining a homogeneous carbohydrate layer, in which all the carbohydrate units are presented in the same orientation.

The natural ligand of cholera toxin is the glycosphingolipid ganglioside GM1, which is present on the cel­ lular membrane of the intestinal epithelial surface of the host. The major contributors to the binding are the galactose and the N‐acetylneuraminic acid units of the GM1 ganglioside [164]. Glycosurfaces containing these carbohydrates may therefore be useful for detection of cholera toxin. GM1‐terminated surfaces have been used for detection of cholera toxin [112,119,165–167] and also to study the inhibition of cholera toxin binding by soluble carbohydrate derivatives [127].

Coli detection via carbohydrate–adhesin interactions: direct detection and Con A‐mediated detection (Fig. 8). The direct detection involved detecting the interaction between a mannose‐terminated SAM and the adhesin units present on the fimbriae of the bacteria. The Con A‐mediated detec­ tion, on the other hand, involved the initial binding of the lipopolysaccharide present on the bacterial surface to Con A that in turn binds to the mannose‐terminated SAM. The signal response was around eight times larger when the Con A‐mediated detection was used.

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