Catholic Royalism in the Department of the Gard 1814-1852 by Brian Fitzpatrick

By Brian Fitzpatrick

The Gard in southern France used to be the scene of intensive bloodshed in 1790, whilst rivals of the Revolution attempted unsuccessfully to avoid swap, and back in 1815, once they sought revenge via a delicately ready White Terror. The revolutions of 1830 and 1848 additionally provoked violent clash within the Gard, or even while the dep. seemed to get pleasure from tranquillity, political and social relatives there have been soured by way of intimidation and worry. This examine indicates how the royalist counter-revolutionaries have been capable of polarise opinion via emphasising the Protestantism in their competitors. Anti-Protestant sentiment, accentuated by way of the organization of Protestants with the political and fiscal associations of the Revolution and Empire, produced a counter-revolutionary stream during which neighborhood concerns predominated. The Catholic royalist leaders' ambition to accomplish greatest autonomy for his or her specific royaume du Midi introduced them into clash not just with critical executive but in addition with their proclaimed loyalty to the Bourbons.

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Siecle, p . 35. 18 Catholic royalism in the Gard Her. 63 Such entrepreneurs, whose power derived primarily from capitalist wealth were drawn instinctively and logically to the promise of greater economic and political power which the French Revolution offered, and in towns like Nimes, Montpellier and Montauban, they and their proteges were already knocking loudly and aggressively on the doors of the landed and legal elites of Languedoc before the Revolution began. Their challenge, as well as their determination to destroy the artisanal mode of production in textiles, was to be one of the principal triggers of the violent opposition to the Revolution which broke out in 1790.

Similar pressures applied to those Protestant businessmen and artisans whose living depended on their ability to work within the framework of Catholic society. In many 58 59 60 A. Encreve, 'Les Protestants du Midi en decembre 1851' in Centre d'histoire contemporaine du Languedoc mediterranean et du Roussillon, Droite etgauche de ij8g a nos jours, pp. 167—8. ibid. D. Ligou, 'L'Eglise reformee du desert, fait economique et social', Rev. d'Hist. icon, et soc. (1954), 146-67. The department of the Gard 17 cases, these nouveaux convertis, as the Catholics called them, made no more than an outward conversion, continuing to have their children baptised and even married secretly by a fugitive pastor.

37 34 35 36 37 Revolution frangaise, 64 (1913), 151-61; M. L. de Santi, 'Notes et documents sur les intrigues royalistes dans le Midi de la France de 1792 a 1815', Memoires de VAcademie de Toulouse, n t h series, 4 (1916), 37-H4C. de Remusat, Memoires de ma vie, 1, 213-15. Villeneuve papers, Administration generate du Midi: decree of 3 June, 1815; Calviere diaries. V i l l e n e u v e papers, Administration generate du Midi. , draft for memoirs, vol. m. The preparation of a counter-revolution 37 In spite of its brief existence - Angouleme annulled all his appointments on 14 August- the gouvernement du M/droffers a striking example of the counterrevolution in action.

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