By Robert Gildea
Nineteenth-century France used to be one of many world's nice cultural beacons, popular for its impressive literature, philosophy, artwork, poetry and expertise. but this was once additionally a tumultuous century of political anarchy and bloodshed, the place each one iteration of the French Revolution's 'children' might adventure their very own wars, revolutions and terrors.
From infantrymen to monks, from peasants to Communards, from feminists to literary figures equivalent to Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac, Robert Gildea's terrific new heritage explores each point of those swiftly altering instances, and the folks who lived via them.
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Extra resources for Children of the Revolution: The French, 1799-1914
For Scandinavia, see H. Barton, ‘Late Gustavian Autocracy in Sweden: Gustav IV Adolf and His Opponents, 1792–1809’, Scandinavian Studies 46, 3 (1974), pp. 265–84. More exists on the Russian state, though the historiography here tends to locate the Napoleonic episode within the wider chronological time-frame that encompasses the enlightened absolutism of Catherine the Great and even the preceding Petrine reforms. For the Napoleonic period, see especially Marc Raeff, Michael Speransky: Statesman of Imperial Russia, 1772–1839 (The Hague, 1969); and David Christian, ‘The political ideas of Michael Speransky’, Slavonic and East European Review 54 (1976), pp.
Dubuc, ‘Les consultations populaires de l’an X et l’an XII en SeineInférieure’, 86e Congrès national des Sociétés savantes (Paris, 1962), pp. 182–5. , pp. 189–91. AN, 798A Registres de vote des Pyrénées-Orientales, an XII (1804). AN, F1cI 55–69, Instruction sur l’exécution du décret du 22 avril concernant l’assemblée du Champ de Mai, 22 May 1815. AN, BII 853, Relevé des votes, an X et an XII (1802 and 1804). F. Bluche, Le Plébiscite des Cent-Jours (avril–mai 1815) (Geneva, 1974), p. 43. Roederer certainly said as much in his report on the plebiscite of 1804: British Library R154, Suite du receuil des pièces et actes relatifs á l’établissement du gouvernement impérial héréditaire (Paris, an XIII).
The series of global totals provided by the regime for the votes held in 1800, 1802, 1804 and 1815 cannot be accepted uncritically if they are to serve as a general guide to degrees of support for the Consulate and Empire. First, the unreliability of the official returns must be taken into account. 8 The manipulation of the results in 1800 has become notorious, though it escaped detection for almost two centuries, despite amounting to a doubling of the total, from roughly one and a half to three million positive votes.