City Teachers: Teaching and School Reform in Historical by Kate Rousmaniere

By Kate Rousmaniere

A research of lecturers' paintings in city colleges in a interval of extreme college reform, as academics and colleges coped with an ever-larger and numerous pupil physique. this article increases questions about the particular impression of college reform on educating, curriculum, employment coverage and faculty management.

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By mid-century, these wars were muted by compromise as the New York legislature authorized a kind of hybrid public school system for the city whereby 17 local wards ran their own schools, loosely joined at the center by a board of education. Under the ward system, school districts were essentially independent school boards that allowed for distinct differences in hiring policies, financing, and curricula between districts. 2 The ward system came under a barrage of attack at the turn of the century from a coalition of educators inspired by faith in the power of the state to drive social reform.

In particular, Harry Smaller, Martin Lawn, Wayne Urban, Richard Altenbaugh, Joe Newman, and Sara Freedman have by their own research and collegiality encouraged this and other studies on the labor process of teaching. Colleagues and friends across disciplines have read sections of this manuscript and provided the conversations and questions that helped it to crystallize. Kari Dehli, Martin Lawn, Wayne Urban, Richard Quantz, Mary Kupiec Cayton, Gretchen Townsend, Barry Franklin, and Frances Fowler have generously contributed their time and thought to this project.

These four themesthe intensification of city teachers' work, the divisions and isolations within the occupation, the divergent meaning of order between teachers and administrators, and teachers' day-to-day adaptive work culturewere the main tendons of teachers' working conditions in city schools. These were the intersecting patterns and practices that shaped both city teachers' work and their responses to that work in modern schools. The Historical Silence on Teachers' Work My motivation for writing this book originated in my dissatisfaction with the way in which the history of teachers has been written or, more often than not, left unwritten.

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