Comprehensive Composite Materials [Vol 5 - Test

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However, lower scatter in tests is more difficult to explain. 6, respectively. 2%. These are approximately double the actual measured values. Whitney and Knight (1980) also reported lower than expected variability in flexural tests. Weibull theory assumes that an increase in volume will give the same change in strength whether it is produced by changing the length, width, or thickness. However, there are some indications that the length may be more significant than the volume. This was suggested by Hitchon and Phillips (1978) as a possible explanation for some of their results.

The smaller two sizes mainly failed in tension, but some of these specimens and nearly all of the largest sized ones failed in compression. The tendency for the failure mode to switch from tension to compression suggests that there is a size effect that is larger in compression than in tension. Table 11 shows the results for strains at failure for those specimens failing in compression. There is a 25% reduction in failure strain between the smallest and largest specimens. 4. Most of the failures initiated at the loading rollers.

The magnitude of the size effect is consistent with Weibull moduli in the range of 13±29 for the carbon and glass fiber/epoxies considered. The Weibull moduli from bending tests tend to be lower than from tensile tests, indicating a more pronounced size effect in bending. Size effects in tensile strength have also been observed in scaled coupon tests on laminates. However, the effects of ply-block thickness and interaction with matrix cracking and delamination tend to mask the underlying size effect in fiber direction strength.

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