By Leonard J. Brillson
This booklet bridges the macroscopic, mesoscopic, and atomic-scale regimes of contacts to semiconductors. it's the cutting-edge in growing to be, processing, and characterizing digital junctions. It comprises descriptions of a big selection of concepts starting from complicated ohmic, Schottky and heterojunction contacts to microscopic junctions gleaned from ultrahigh vacuum floor technological know-how suggestions.
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Extra resources for Contacts to Semiconductors - Fundamentals and Technology
In general, fee metals can have a close lattice match to GaAs by a 45” rotation and l/&ra,,, lattice parameter (Fig. 2a with alignment as in Fig. 1c) and bee metals by a cubeon-cube alignment with 0,5a,o&(Fig. 2b with alignment as in Fig. 1 b). As will be shown later, the metallic elements are generally not thermodynamically stable on Ill-V semiconductors. There are, however, a large number of metallic compounds with cubic structure. Compounds with the CaFz, the CsCI, the NaCl and the BiF, structures have been of particular interest for potential epitaxial metallization.
The number of elements with lattice parameter close to the Ill-V semiconductors is limited. In general, fee metals can have a close lattice match to GaAs by a 45” rotation and l/&ra,,, lattice parameter (Fig. 2a with alignment as in Fig. 1c) and bee metals by a cubeon-cube alignment with 0,5a,o&(Fig. 2b with alignment as in Fig. 1 b). As will be shown later, the metallic elements are generally not thermodynamically stable on Ill-V semiconductors. There are, however, a large number of metallic compounds with cubic structure.
One successful MBE-grown contact involves the growth of a thin n+ Ge layer on the GaAs (Fig. 3 ev[361. Since EF lies above E, in the Ge, the barrier at the Ge-GaAs heterojunction is reduced. Thus, this interface presents littleresistance to electron flow. 6 eV)t3q and Ge can be doped heavily n-type (~102~cmj. Hence, tunneling at this interface can be significant. These two interfaces in series offer very little resistance to electron flow ($1 Oe7Q-cm2). (a) I metal , I I n+ Ge (-lo2acm-31 tn+GaAs I (-10i8cni31 I AEd: t (b) Ga1_,In,As Figure 5.