By Krzysztof Matyjaszewski (Eds.)
content material: basics of controlled/living radical polymerization / Krzysztof Matyjaszewski --
Radical addition to alkenes : a theoretical viewpoint / Leo Radom, Ming Wah Wong, and Addy Pross --
elements influencing the addition of radicals to alkenes / Anne Ghosez-Giese and Bernd Giese --
Cascade radical reactions in natural synthesis : an summary / Dennis P. Curran --
Selective product formation with organometallic radicals of nickel and zinc / Gerard van Koten, Robert A. Gossage, David M. Grove, and Johann T.B.H. Jastzebski --
Pulsed laser experiments directed towards the unique learn of free-radical polymerizations / Sabine Beuermann and Michael Buback --
Termination fee coefficients from molecular weight distributions / Paul A. Clay, David I. Christie, and Robert G. Gilbert --
The size and that means of radical reactivity ratios / Johan P.A. Heuts, Michelle L. Coote, Thomas P. Davis, and Lloyd P.M. Johnston --
Electron spin resonance reviews of radical polymerization / Mikiharu Kamachi --
The strong free-radical polymerization technique : function of extra nitroxide / M.K. Georges, R.P.N. Veregin, and okay. Daimon --
Mechanism and kinetics of nitroxide-controlled free-radical polymerization / Takeshi Fukuda, Atsushi Goto, Kohji Ohno, and Yoshinobu Tsujii --
Styrene polymerization mediated by means of 5-membered cyclic nitroxides / B. Yamada, Y. Miura, Y. Nobukane, and M. Aota --
Nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization : end-group research / Yucheng Zhu, I.Q. Li, B.A. Howell, and D.B. Priddy --
Controlled/living free-radical polymerization of styrene and n-butyl acrylate within the presence of a singular uneven nitroxyl radical / D. Benoit, S. Grimaldi, J.P. Finet, P. Tordo, M. Fontanille, and Y. Gnanou --
Nitroxide-mediated managed radical polymerization : towards keep an eye on of molar mass / Stefan A.F. Bon, Frank A.C. Bergman, J.J.G. Steven van Es, Bert Klumperman, and Anton L. German --
Mechanistic features of atom move radical polymerization / Krzysztof Matyjaszewski --
Atom move radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate : impact of phenols / D.M. Haddleton, A.J. Shooter, A.M. Heming, M.C. Crossman, D.J. Duncalf, and S.R. Morsley --
dwelling radical polymerization mediated via transition metals : contemporary advances / Mitsuo Sawamoto and Masami Kamigaito --
regulate of radical polymerizations via metalloradicals / B.B. Wayland, S. Mukerjee, G. Poszmik, D.C. Woska, L. Basickes, A.A. Gridnev, M. Fryd, and S.D. Ittel --
Photochemical polymerizations initiated and mediated by means of soluble organocobalt compounds / Labros D. Arvanitopoulos, Michael P. Greuel, Brian M. King, Anne okay. Shim, and H. James Harwood --
Controlled-growth free-radical polymerization of methacrylate esters : reversible chain move as opposed to reversible termination / Graeme Moad, Albert G. Anderson, Frances Ercole, Charles H.J. Johnson, Julia Krstina, Catherine L. Moad, Ezio Rizzardo, Thomas H. Spurling, and San H. Thang --
Free-radical synthesis of sensible polymers concerning addition-fragmentation reactions / P. Chaumont, D. Colombani, L. Boiteau, J.P. Lamps, M.-O. Zink, C.P.R. Nair, and D. Charmot --
functions of Barton esters in polymer synthesis and amendment through free-radical techniques / W.H. Daly and T.S. Evenson --
the way to make polymer chains of assorted shapes, compositions, and functionalities by means of atom move radical polymerization / Scott G. Gaynor and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski --
managed radical polymerization equipment for the synthesis of nonionic surfactants for CO2 / D.E. Betts, T. Johnson, D. LeRoux, and J.M. DeSimone --
layout recommendations for branched and hugely branched macromolecular architectures utilizing nitroxide-mediated residing free-radical tactics / Craig J. Hawker, Eva E. Malmström, Jean M.J. Fréchet, Marc R. Leduc, R. Bernard Grubbs, and George G. Barclay --
Stereochemical keep an eye on of free-radical polymerization of vinyl monomers / Tamaki Nakano and Yoshio Okamoto.
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Additional info for Controlled Radical Polymerization
Nature 1956, 176, 1168. ; Lee, B. Polym. Int. 1992, 27, 359. (5) Matyjaszewski, K. J. Phys. Org. Chem. 1995, 8, 197. , E d . Cationic Polymerizations: Mechanisms, Synthesis and Applications; Marcel Dekker: New York, 1996. ; Lin, C . - H . Makromol. Chem. Macromol. Symp. 1991, 47, 221. (8) Müller, A . H. E . ; Y a n , D . ; Litvinienko, G . Macromolecules 1995, 28, 4326. ; Müller, Α. H. E . Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. , Div. ) 1997, 38(1), 6. (10) G o l d , L. J. Chem. Phys. 1958, 28, 91. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1998.
Bader charges calculated at the UHF/6-31G(d) level. Because the direction of charge transfer is generally from the alkene to the methyl radical, we might expect that i f polar effects are important they would manifest themselves in a nice correlation of reaction barrier with the ionization energy of the alkene. However, when we plot our calculated barrier heights against the ionization energies of the alkenes (Figure 8) there is no correlation at all. On the other hand, when we plot the reaction barrier against the electron affinities of the alkenes (Figure 9), there is a reasonable correlation.
Often in chemistry, however, we don't need absolute quantities. It would often be sufficient i f we could reliably predict trends. So we ask now: what about relative barriers? D o the trends come out well with simpler levels of theory? 1 1 -1 -1 Table I. 7 e - 1 6-31G(d) basis set, k J m o l , from ref. 77. U H F / 6 - 3 1 G ( d ) geometries unless otherwise noted. A M 1 geometries. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1998. 37 A selection of the results that enable us to examine the performance of theory in predicting relative barriers is shown in Table II.