D-Day Fortifications in Normandy by Steven J. Zaloga, Hugh Johnson

By Steven J. Zaloga, Hugh Johnson

German defenses alongside the Normandy shores have been a part of the bigger Atlantic Wall fortifications designed to protect castle Europe. while box Marshal Erwin Rommel took command of the invasion entrance in overdue 1943, he all started a software to reinforce fortifications alongside the Normandy coast as he believed that any Allied attack needed to be stopped at the invasion shores themselves. His most vital contribution to the defenses used to be an intensive application of improvised seashore obstructions to complicate any touchdown try out. This publication analyses those fortifications and describes how the Allied forces overcame them at the morning of June 6, 1944.

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Under 782, the Annales regni francorum recorded that Charles set out on a military campaign, crossed the Rhine at Cologne, and held a synodus at Lippspringe. All the Saxons save the rebel Widukind came to Charlemagne there, and there were also legates from Halfdan of the Danes and from the Avars. The Saxons under Widukind rebelled, but Charlemagne, unaware of this, sent an army of Franks and Saxons against some Slavs. En route the leaders of this army, Adalgis, Geilo and Warin, heard about the Saxon rebellion, so without telling Charles they diverted, went to meet the Saxons in the Su¨ntel mountains and were killed.

Angilbert, abbot of the monastery of St Riquier was sent for this purpose. The original version, however, makes no mention of securing the fidelity of the Roman people, their oaths, or that Angilbert was sent to receive the oaths. What Angilbert went to Rome for, according to this annalist, was to take the pope some of the Avar treasure as a gift. As one proceeds through the whole Revised Version of the Annales regni francorum, it conveys an impression of Charlemagne the king, the role of the Franks and the regime he created, very different from that created by the text on which it is based.

XV. , cc. 45 and 46, pp. 110–14. , cc. 1 and 3, pp. 26–7, 30–1. , c. 21, p. 66. , cc. 10–12, pp. 42–50; and Einhard, Vita Karoli, c. 15, ed. Halphen, pp. 44–6. 20 Charlemagne (fols. 56–63) is now the only Carolingian portion of the book. It also has contemporary corrections in a different hand. The rest of the book comprises copies of the Germania and Dictys Cretensis made by the Italian humanist Guanieri, supposedly from another ninth-century exemplar. 74 A wider knowledge of this text in Frankish intellectual circles is suggested not only by this text and its exemplar but also by the third copy, which appears to have been the source of the corrections.

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