By M. Desaintfuscien
Physical strategies, concerning atomic phenomena, permit a growing number of special time and frequency measurements. This development isn't attainable with no handy processing of the respective uncooked information. The publication describes the information processing at a number of degrees: layout of the time and frequency references, characterization of the time and frequency references, purposes regarding targeted time and/or frequency references. The metrological houses balance, accuracy and reproducibility are outlined and the strategies resulting in their characterization are proven. many of the features of the variance of the frequency fluctuations are mentioned and in comparison and their importance is given.
Some significant purposes of the simplest frequency and time criteria are ultimately mentioned. the best way the intense precision of those assets is used to acquire unique time and place details is shown:
- Time scales, used to explain each human and exercises, resembling astronomy, actual legislation, etc.
- Positioning platforms, akin to GPS
- Very lengthy base interferometry (VLBI)
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Additional info for Data Processing in Precise Time and Frequency Applications
16. In such a loop: 1. a signal at a frequency close to the frequency of the atomic signal is coherently generated from the local oscillator to be controlled, 2. the phase diﬀerence between that signal and the atomic signal is converted to a voltage error signal) by a phase comparator, and 3. this voltage is processed by an electronic circuit (ﬁlter) and is applied to the control input of the local oscillator in order to minimize the phase diﬀerence. The frequency delivered by the local oscillator is the superposition of 1.
40) k=0 Special care must be taken to reduce this contribution by choosing the local oscillator. This local oscillator is often a hydrogen maser (see  for an example). 37) shows that the frequency noise of the local oscillator is totally transmitted on the output of the device. 3 Frequency Response for the Amplitude Noise of the Atomic Transition In the simpliﬁed model (see Sect. 1), the loop can be described according to the Fourier frequency range by (see Fig. 11) one of the two following sets of equations: 1.
As in the case of the cesium atom, the ground state of the hydrogen atom has no ﬁne structure because the orbital magnetic moment cancels, but possesses a hyperﬁne structure due to the interaction of its nucleus spin (characterized by the quantum number I = 1/2) and its valence electron spin (characterized by the quantum number S = 1/2). If the electron and nucleus spins are parallel, the hyperﬁne structure level is characterized by the quantum number F = 1/2 + 1/2 = 1. If they are anti-parallel, the hyperﬁne level is characterized by the quantum number F = 1/2 − 1/2 = 0.