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Extra info for De Anima: On the Soul
But there exist not only these elements, but many other things besides—or perhaps it is better to say that the things composed of them are unlimited in number. Well then, let us grant that the soul recognizes and perceives the things each of these is made of; still, by what means will it come to know or perceive the whole made of them (for example what a god or a human is, or what flesh or bone is)? Likewise with any other composite: it is not by having the elements combined any old way whatever, but by means of some ratio [logos] and composition that each is what it is.
If self-motion is changed, it becomes something other than self-motion. This result is, in a way, the absurd opposite of what Aristotle will argue: that the soul is what is responsible for a living thing’s maintaining itself as what it is. 406b 10 20 30 36 Aristotle: De Anima 407a 10 into a circle. 29 Now, in the first place, it is just not right to say that the soul is a magnitude; for, as for the soul of the whole, it is clear that he intends it to be something of such a sort as what is called intellect.
It is important to recall that the Greeks considered one to be a unit, and numbers to be multitudes of units; for Aristotle the principle of unity of a thing is a deep aspect of the reality of that thing–and soul is such a principle–but the numbers that tell us how many unities happen to be present have a derivative kind of reality. For the role of Friendship in Empedocles, see note to 404b15. 10 20 40 Aristotle: De Anima 30 408b 10 20 Such are the perplexities involved in these ideas. If, on the other hand, the soul is something different from the mixture, what, then, may be the reason that it is lost at the same time that what makes the flesh be flesh is lost (and the same for the other parts of the animal)?