Determinism and Freedom in Stoic Philosophy by Susanne Bobzien

By Susanne Bobzien

Bobzien offers the definitive learn of 1 of the main fascinating highbrow legacies of the traditional Greeks: the Stoic thought of causal determinism. She explains what it was once, how the Stoics justified it, and the way it pertains to their perspectives on probability, motion, freedom, ethical accountability, and plenty of different subject matters. She demonstrates the significant philosophical richness and gear that those rules continue at the present time.

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36 Cf. also Diogenes Laertius' third Stoic account of 'predicate', above n. 30. 37 For an exposition of the Stoic concept and definitions of proposition (a£iiofia) cf. e. g. to the predicate 'to walk' actualized at Theano from tm to tn corresponds the proposition 'Theano is walking' actualized from tm to tn. ) Now, again, instead of a proposition's being actualized several times, we can talk about several actualizations of that one proposition. Thus to every actualization of a predicate there corresponds at least one actualization of a proposition, in the way determined above.

M. Thus individual motions and qualitative states can also be understood as something like phases of predicates, more precisely, phases of predicates-while-they-are-actualized. g. 'is moving her right leg forward'. 33 What makes things that are effects actualized predicates is not the fact that they are caused. g. ) I hence assume that, although motions and qualitative states are effects, they are predicates independently of this. Still, the important point is that movements and qualitative states are unique among actualized predicates in that they are directly dependent on the active principle.

Stoic, rep. 1054a. " Stoici placet unam causam esse, id quod facit. a. See also M. Frede 1980, 225—6, on the Stoic conception of causes as active. 21 SvvfKTiKOV aiTiov appears to be the later Stoic technical term for such causes. There is no evidence that Chrysippus had a technical term for such causes, rather he seems to have used various forms of avve^iv (to hold together) and related verbs (cf. Plut. Stoic, rep. 1053f, avve-^erai, avvexofjievcur, avve\u>v\ similarly Alex. Mixt. 233—4, reporting Stoic doctrine: avvf^taOai, avvoxr/, avvfxrj, awiyzia, avvexov).

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