By Pierre R. Dasen, Ramesh C. Mishra
Selfish spatial language makes use of coordinates with regards to our physique to speak about small-scale area ('put the knife at the correct of the plate and the fork at the left'), whereas geocentric spatial language makes use of geographic coordinates ('put the knife to the east, and the fork to the west'). How do kids learn how to use geocentric language? And why do geocentric spatial references sound unusual in English after they are usual perform in different languages? This e-book experiences baby improvement in Bali, India, Nepal, and Switzerland and explores how childrens learn how to use a geocentric body either while conversing and appearing non-verbal cognitive initiatives (such as remembering destinations and directions). The authors research how those talents advance with age, examine the socio-cultural contexts during which the educational happens, and discover the ecological, cultural, social, and linguistic stipulations that favour using a geocentric body of reference.
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Additional resources for Development of Geocentric Spatial Language and Cognition: An Eco-cultural Perspective
One of the main questions in both Levinson’s research and ours deals with the consequences of using one FoR rather than another, particularly for nonÂ�linguistic cognitive tasks. Levinson (2003) asks this question at the group level:Â€if a language shows a strong preference for one of the frames, do speakers of that language tend to use that frame also in non-linguistic tasks? Research by Levinson’s group provides overwhelming evidence that they do. A whole series of non-verbal tasks has been devised for this purpose, in the specific area of spatial coding in memory.
The following quote could easily be interpreted in terms of cognitive styles:Â€ “Although both systems of thought are in principle cognitively available to all normal adult humans, cultural experiences may encourage reliance on one system at the expense of another, giving rise to systematic cultural differences. These differences in cognitive orientations are believed to be rooted in the different social worlds of East Asians and Westerners today” (Norenzayan, Choi, & Peng, 2007, p. 578). Riding (2001, 2002; see also Dörnyei, 2005, pp.
In other tests, such as the Embedded Figures Test (EFT), where small elements have to be found in a complex drawing, field-independent subjects find the elements more easily (and take less time to solve the task, if it is timed), so it is difficult not to find their performance more efficient than that of the fielddependent individuals. Still a step further, some standard psychometric tasks, such as the Block Designs Test (BDT, also called Kohs Blocks) or Raven’s Progressive Matrices were found to correlate with RFT and EFT, and were therefore also considered to be measures of psychological differentiation (see for example Berry, 1976).